When visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are deployed in brain–computer interfaces (BCIs), the emphasis is put on stimulus design. In the case of transient VEPs (TVEPs) brain responses are never treated individually, i.e. on a single-trial (ST) basis, due to their poor signal quality. Therefore their main characteristic, which is the emergence during early latencies, remains unexplored.


  • Single-trial TVEPs encode information about stimulus that can be robustly detected within a well-defined latency-range.
  • The response is readily enhanced by means of an operator that forms a spatial difference.
  • Attention modulates the TVEPs in a way that is decodable from the enhanced response by means of a Mahalanobis-Taguchi system.

D. Liparas, S.I. Dimitriadis, N.A. Laskaris, A. Tzelep, K. Charalambous, L. Angelis, “Exploiting the temporal patterning of transient VEP signals: A statistical single-trial methodology with implications to brain–computer interfaces”, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2014, 232;189-198.

You may read the full study here

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