Invited review
This paper is a review on Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control.

By Jonathan R. Wolpawa(a,b)*, Niels Birbaumer(c,d), Dennis J. McFarland(a),Gert Pfurtscheller(e), Theresa M. Vaughan (a)
For many years people have speculated that electroencephalographic activity or other electrophysiological measures of brain function
might provide a new non-muscular channel for sending messages and commands to the external world, a brain-computer interface (BCI).
Over the past 15 years, productive BCI research programs have arisen. Encouraged by new understanding of brain function, by the advent of
powerful low-cost computer equipment, and by growing recognition of the needs and potentials of people with disabilities, these programs
concentrate on developing new augmentative communication and control technology for those with severe neuromuscular disorders, such as
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke, and spinal cord injury.
This paper is a review on Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control.
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(a)Laboratory of Nervous System Disorders, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA
(b) State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA
(c) Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
(d)Department of Psychophysiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
(e)Department of Medical Informatics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Technical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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