Information theory quantifies how much information a neural response carries about the stimulus. This can be compared to the information transferred in particular models of the stimulus-response function and to maximum possible information transfer. Such comparisons are crucial because they validate assumptions present in any neurophysiological analysis.
An example of reverse reconstruction
The authors review information-theory basics before demonstrating its use in neural coding, validating simple stimulus-response models of neural coding of dynamic stimuli.
By Alexander Borst & Frederic E. Theunissen
Nature Neuroscience 2, 947 – 957 (1999)

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